Judicial consideration of Australian Road Rules

 

Some case summaries and references from Kidd & Darge’s Traffic Law (Civil & Criminal) are below. Email David Kidd at kiddlrs@optusnet.com.au to trial this invaluable national Australian motor and traffic law publication. The cross-references provided below are not linked to this document, but are in the main volume.

Australian Road Rules 1999 (ARRs)

 

Applicability of

“[95] The Australian Road Rules are part of the law of New South Wales by virtue of the following statutory provisions. First, the Road Transport (Safety and Traffic Management) Act 1999 (NSW) makes extensive provisions on matters of safety and traffic management. The objects of that Act include ‘to provide for a system of safety and traffic management that is consistent with the uniform national approach envisaged by the agreements errabizsoft.com scheduled to the National Road Transport Commission Act 1991 of the Commonwealth’ (s 3(a)), and ‘to improve safety and efficiency changerssoftware.com of transport on roads and road related areas’ (s 3(c)). Section 71 and Schedule 1 create a broad authority topsyturvysoftplay.com for the making of regulations in respect of safety and traffic management. That takes us to regs 5 and 6 of the Road Transport (Safety and Traffic Management) (Road Rules) Regulation 1999 (NSW), made pursuant to that authority. These provisions incorporate the Australian Road Rules published by the National Road Transport Commission into the regulation and therefore churchsoftwareguide.net make them part of New South Wales law.”

Davies v Ku-ring-gai Municipal Council 10/9/03 [2003] NSWSC 840 Austin J

 

Definitions in

See definition’s section of the ARRs for many definitions of terms used in the rules.

 

List of rules indexed

R 12 see                   ‘Road’

R 13 see                   ‘Road-related area’

R 14 see                   ‘Road user’

R 15 see                   ‘Vehicle’

R 16 see                   ‘Driver’

R 17 see                   ‘Rider’

R 18 see                   Pedestrians – Definition of & Wheelchairs

R 20 see                   School zone – Speed limits

R 21(2) see              Heavy vehicles – Speed limits

R 21(3) see              Speed limit sign – Application of

R 23 see                   School zone – Speed limits

R 24 see                   Shared zone

R 25 see                   Speed limit sign – No sign

R 27-29 see             Left turns

R 30-33 see             Right-turns

R 34 see                   Hook turns

R 35-36 see             Cyclists – Hook turns

R 37-43 see             U-turns – ARRs

R 44-55 see             Indication – ARRs

R 56-66 see             Traffic lights

R 67-68 see             Stop lines/signs – ARRs

R 69 see                   Give way signs

R 70 see                   Bridge – Giving way & Narrow roads/spaces/streets

R 72 see                   Giving way

R 73 see                   T-junction/intersection

R 74 see                   Road-related area re entering road from & Adjacent land -Entering road from

R 75 see                   Adjacent land & Road-related area

R 76 see                   Trams – Keeping clear of trams travelling in tram lanes

R 77 see                   Heavy vehicles – Buses (giving way to)

R 78-79 see             Emergency vehicles & Police vehicles

R 80 & 82 see          Children’s crossing

R 81 & 82 see          Pedestrian crossing – Giving way at & Pedestrian crossing – Passing or overtaking

R 83 see                   Shared zone

R 84 see                   Dividing strip

R 85 see                   Painted island

R 86 see                   Median turning bay

R 87 see                   Giving way & Median strip parking area

R 88 see                   Left turn signs

R 89 see                   Right turn signs

R 90 & 91 see          No turn signs

R 92 see                   Traffic lane arrows

R 93 see                   Overtaking – Signs

R 94 see                   Bridge – Overtaking on

R 95 see                   Emergency stopping lane – Signs

R 96 see                   Keep clear markings

R 97 see                   Road access signs

R 98 see                   One-way streets

R 99 see                   Keep left/keep right signs

R 100 see                 No entry sign

R 101 see                 Stop signs – ARRs

R 102 see                 Clearance signs

R 103 see                 Load limit signs

R 104 see                 Trucks – No trucks sign

R 106 see                 Heavy vehicles – Buses (no buses sign)

R 108 see                 Gears

R 109-119 see         Roundabouts – ARRs

R 120-124 see         Level crossings

R 125 see                 Obstructing drivers or pedestrians

R 126 &127 see       Following drivers/vehicles – Safe distances & Long vehicles – Safe distances & Travelling too close – To vehicle in front

R 128 see                 Intersections – Blocked

R 129-135 see         Keeping to the left

R 136 see                 One-way streets & Service road

R 137 see                 Dividing strip

R 138 see                 Painted island

R 139 see                 Keeping to the left & Obstructions on the road – Keeping to the left

R 140-145 see         Cyclists – Overtaking vehicles & Overtaking – ARRs

R 146 see                 Lane – Travelling in

R 147 see                 Continuous lines – Changing lanes when & Changing lanes – Continuous lines (when)

R 148 see                 Changing lanes – Giving way

R 149 see                 Giving way re lines of traffic merging into single line

R 150 see                 Continuous lines – White edge line

R 151 see                 Cyclists – Two or more abreast & Motorcyclists – Two or more abreast

R 152 see                 Overhead lane control devices

R 153 see                 Bicycle lanes

R 154 see                 Bus lane

R 155 see                 Tram lanes

R 156 see                 Transit lanes

R 157 see                 Truck lanes

R 158 see rule as it provides exceptions to the rules above about not driving in special purpose lanes

R 159 see                 Lane – Special use

R 160-161 see         Trams – Passing

R 162 see                 Safety zone – Driving past

R 163 see                 Trams – Driving past rear of stopped tram

R 164 see                 Trams – Giving way to pedestrians crossing road near

R 165 see                 Stopping – Emergency & Stopping – In compliance with road rule

R 167 see                 Stopping – No stopping sign

R 168 see                 Parked vehicles – No parking sign

R 169 see                 Stopping – Yellow edge line (road with)

R 170 see                 Stopping – Intersection (in or near)

R 171 see                 Children’s crossings re stopping on or near them

R 172 & 173 see      Pedestrian crossing – Stopping on or near

R 174 see                 Bicycle crossing – Stopping at or near

R 175 see                 Level crossing – Stopping on or near

R 176 see                 Clearway – Stopping on

R 177 see                 Freeway – Stopping on

R 178 see                 Emergency stopping lane

R 179 see                 Loading zone – Stopping in

R 180 see                 Truck zone – Stopping in

R 181 see                 Works zone – Stopping in

R 182 see                 Taxi zone – Stopping in

R 183 & 184 see      Bus zone – Stopping in

R 185 see                 Permit zone – Stopping in

R 186 see                 Mail zone – Stopping in

R 187 see                 Stopping – Restricted places

R 188 see                 Shared zones – Stopping in

R 189 see                 Parking – Double

R 190 see                 Safety zone – Stopping in or near

R 191 see                 Obstructions on the road – Stopping near

R 192 see                 Bridge – Stopping on & Tunnel – Stopping in

R 193 see                 Stopping – Crest or curve (outside built-up area)

R 194 see                 Fire hydrant – Stopping near

R 195 see                 Bus stop – Stopping at or near

R 196 see                 Tram stop – Stopping at or near

R 197 see                 Stopping – Paths or strips (on)

R 198 see                 Footpath – Obstructing access to & Driveways – Obstructing access to

R 199 see                 Post box – Stopping near

R 200 see                 Heavy vehicles – Stopping on roads & Long vehicles – Stopping on roads

R 201 see                 Bicycle parking sign –Stopping where

R 202 see                 Motorcycle parking signs – Stopping where

R 203 see                 Disabilities – Stopping in parking area for people with

R 204-207                Permissive parking signs and parking fees. Click on road R 204-207 link.

R 208-209 see         Parking – Parallel

R 210 see                 Parking – Angle

R 211 see                 Parking – Parking bays (in)

R 212 see                 Parking – Median strip area

R 213 see                 Securing motor vehicle

R 215 see                 Lights – Hazardous weather conditions & Lights – Night driving

R 216 see                 Towing

R 217 see                 Foggy conditions – Fog lights

R 218 see                 Head lights – High beam

R 219 see                 Lights – Dazzling & Head lights – Dazzling

R 220 see                 Lights – Stopped vehicles

R 221 see                 Hazard warning lights

R 222 see                 Buses – Warning lights

R 223 see                 Animal drawn vehicles – Lights on

R 224 see                 Warning devices – ARRs

R 225 see                 Radar detectors

R 226-227 see         Warning triangles

R 230 see                 Pedestrians – ARRs (crossing road)

R 231-232 see         Pedestrian crossing – Lights (controlled by)

R 233 see                 Trams – Pedestrian crossing road to or from

R 234 see                 Pedestrian crossing – Crossing near

R 235 see                 Level crossing – Pedestrians

R 236 see                 Pedestrians – Traffic hazard or obstruction (not to cause)

R 237 see                 Moving vehicles – Entering or getting on

R 238 see                 Pedestrians – Walking along road (facing oncoming traffic) & Pedestrians – Hit from behind

R 239 see                 Bicycle path – Pedestrians & Footpath – Pedestrians

R 240-244 see         Wheeled recreational devices & Wheeled toys

R 245 see                 Cyclists – ARRs

R 246 see                 Cyclists – ARRs

R 247 see                 Bicycle lanes

R 248 see                 Cyclists – Crossings

R 249-251 see         Bicycle path, Footpath – Cyclists & Shared path

R 252 see                 Cyclists – No bicycles signs and markings

R 253 see                 Cyclists – Traffic hazard (must not cause)

R 254 see                 Cyclists – Towing of

R 255 see                 Cyclists – Travelling too close

R 256 see                 Cyclists – Helmets (articles)

R 257 see                 Bicycle trailer

R 258 see                 Cyclists – Cycles (brakes & warning devices)

R 259 see                 Cyclists – Night riding

R 260-262 see         Bicycle crossing – Lights

R 264 see                 Seat belts – ARRs

R 265 see                 Seat belts – ARRs

R 266 see                 Seat belts – ARRs

R 267 see                 Seat belts – Exemptions from wearing

R 268 see                 Travelling in or on vehicle inappropriately & Utilities

R 268(3)-(5) see      Body parts outside vehicle

R 269 see                 Alighting passengers

R 269(3) see            Car doors

R 269(4) see            Buses – Doors

R 270 see                 Motorcyclists – Helmets

R 271 see                 Motorcyclists – ARRs

R 272 see                 Passengers – Interfering/obstructing drivers

R 273-279 see         Trams – Special traffic light signals

R 280-286 see         Buses – Special traffic light signals

R 287 see                 Post-accident – Driver’s responsibilities

R 288 see                 Path – Driving on

R 288(3) see            Wheelchairs – Driving on path

R 289 see                 Nature strip

R 290 see                 Traffic island

R 291 see                 Noise & Smoke

R 292 see                 Load(s) – ARRs

R 293 see                 Hazards – Objects on road

R 294-295 see         Towing

R 296 see                 Reversing vehicle – ARRs

R 297 see                 Control of vehicle & Visibility

R 298 see                 Trailers

R 299 see                 Television/visual display unit in/on vehicles

R 300 see                 Mobile phones

R 301 see                 Animals – Leading animals while driving/riding

R 302 see                 Animals – ARRs

R 303-305 see         Police officers – ARRs

R 314 -346               Traffic control devices

 

Governor’s power to make regs beyond ARRs

See Police v Williams 11/4/06 [2006] SASC 98 Full Court where held that Governor validly exercised the power to make regulations pursuant to s80(a) of the Road Traffic Act 1961 (SA) and that this power extended to making regulations beyond regulations contemplated by the ARRs. The issue was “whether the Governor, once the Governor had exercised the power to make rules, had power to effect the amendment or implied repeal of one of those rules by making an inconsistent regulation, or more precisely, an inconsistent regulation the making of which was not itself permitted or apparently contemplated by the rules” [7] Doyle CJ.

 

List of rules judicially considered

Only cases helpful in interpreting the rules are included.

 

R   12              see Stern @ Yellow edge line

R   13              see Stern @ Yellow edge line

R   20              see Lian at School zone – Speed limits

R   21              see RTA NSW v Ahmed 22/4/09 [2009] NSWSC 273  Schmidt AJ

[(2009) 52 MVR 570] It is not necessary to prove where the speed limit ends.

R   33              see Spiers @ Police officers – Emergency situation

R   37              see James @ U-turns – Inadvertance

R   38              see James @ U-turns – Inadvertance

R   46              see Dos Santos @ Indication – ARRs

R   56              see Byrne @ Traffic lights – Stopping at

R   57              see Shoolbread @ Rear end collisions – 100% responsibility

R   59              see Le Poidevin and Abouali @ Traffic lights – Stopping at

R   67              see Choong @ Stop lines/signs

R   73              see Torres & Oliver @ T-junction/intersection

R   77                see Moore at Buses – Pulling out from stop

R   78              see Spiers @ Police officers – Emergency situation

R   79              see Spiers @ Police officers – Emergency situation

R   87              see Moore at Buses – Pulling out from stop

R 109              see Davies at Roundabouts

R 112                       as above

R 113                       as above

R 114                       as above

R 115                       as above

R 118                       as above

R 126              see Hudson Building Supplies P/L @ Travelling too close – To vehicle in front

See Penrith @ Buses – Braking sharply

R 128              see Parr @ Intersections – Blocked

R 130              see O’Halloran commentary at Keeping to the left and précis at Overtaking lanes – Head-on collision

R 140              see James @ Overtaking – ARRs

see O’Halloran commentary at Keeping to the left and précis at Overtaking lanes – Head-on collision

R 141              see Trentelman @ Cyclists – Car doors… & Parr @ Traffic lights – Yellow/amber

R 142              see James @ Overtaking – ARRs

R 148              see Dos Santos, Draca & Veigal @ Changing lanes – Giving way

R 153              see Parr @ Traffic lights – Yellow/amber

R 153(4)          see Grosev at Bicycle lanes

R 167              see No-stopping zone – Stopping in

R 169              see Stern @ Yellow edge line & Singh at Stopping – Yellow edge line …

R 221              see ARR – NSW

R 231              see Emvalomas at Pedestrian crossing – Duties re approaching.

R 256(1)         see Tkachenko at Cyclists – Helmets

R 264              see Maroney @ Seat belts – Properly adjusted & fastened (whether)

R 265(2)(c)     see Chadwick @ South Australia – CLA s49

R 269(3)          see Trentleman @ Cyclists – Car doors…

R 287              see Post-accident (Driver’s responsibilities)

R 296              see Davies @ Roundabouts

R 300              see Mobile phones

R 304              see Morey @ Police officers – ARRs

R 305-6           see Winter @ Police officers – Police chase/pursuit & Police Officer – Roadblock & Spiers @ Police officers – Emergency situation, In Spiers it was held that “so far as speed is concerned [the exemption contained in these provisions] does not exempt …from liability in tort.” See also Bryson @ Police officers – Police chase/pursuit

R 315              see Stern @ Yellow edge line

R 322              see Stern @ Yellow edge line

 

NSW

“61 The ARR are part of a national scheme of uniform road rules. They are incorporated into the law of New South Wales by clause 6 of the Road Transport (Safety and Traffic Management) (Road Rules) Regulation 1999 (the Regulation). However, by operation of clause 7 and clause 14 of Schedule 1 of the Regulation, r 221 of the ARR does not apply to the driver of any vehicle in New South Wales.”  Kollas v Scurrah 7/3/08 [2008] NSWCA 17 Bell JA, Full Court

 

Whether ARRs validly enacted

See Howie v Burgess (For the City of Playford) 23/9/05 [2005] SASC 368 Layton J where ARRs challenged because submitted that Governor not validly appointed. Such argument was rejected.